No. 20 December 1, 1954
FISH AND WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT
PROVINCE OF ONTARIO
DEPARTMENT OF LANDS AND FORESTS
Division of Fish and Wildlife
Hon. Clare E. Mapledoram F.A. MacDougall
Minister Deputy Minister
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Waterfowl Band Recovery Program, Sioux Lookout
District, Third Progress Report, February 14,
1953 - March 23, 1954 - A. T. Cringan
Mid-Winter Waterfowl Inventory, 1954
- H. 0. Lumsden
Experiment in Scaring Starlings by Sound at
Buffalo, New York - A. H. Berst
Duck Banding at Toronto Island, 1954
- W. J. Douglas Stephen 12
Waterfowl Observations in the Perrault Falls Area
Sioux Lookout District, 1953-1954
- A. T. Cringan 14
A Biological Survey of Engineer's Lake, Kenora
District - P. F. Chidley 20
Creel Census Report — 1953 Sault Ste. Marie
District - Kenneth H. Loftus 26
Additional Age and Growth of Ontario Fish —
Lake Whitefish ( Coregonus clupeaformis )
^""0". E. Devitt 29
Till Algjagare — "For the Moosehunter" 34
(THESE REPORTS ARE FOR INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL
INFORMATION AND NOT FOR PUBLICATION)
WATERFOWL BAND RECOVERY PROGRAM, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT
THIRD PROGRESS REPORT
FEBRUARY 14. 1953 - MARCH 23. 1954
A. T. Cringan
We have added seventy-six completed band returns to our files during the
past thirteen months, increasing our total to 171* Returns by species are shown in
TABLE I - District Band Returns by Species
Returns received during period up to
Species Oct. 25/52 Oct. 26/52 - Feb. 13/53 Feb. 14/53 - Mar. 23/54 Total
Canada Goose 15 16 37 68
Mallard 13 19 9 41
Black Duck 6 8 9 23
Blue Goose 15 7 13
Lesser Snow Goose 4 9 13
Pintail 2 1 2 5
Lesser Scaup 3 3
Richardson's Goose 2 2
Ring-necked Duck 1 1
Redhead 1 1
Green-winged Teal 1 1
TOTAL 37 58 76 171
Just one of the seventy-six bands for which new returns have been received
was taken a year or more prior to our receipt of the bands. This may indicate that
we have succeeded in picking up most of such bands available.
Source of Returns. Means of Death, and Place of Banding
Places of returns, by band areas and species, are shown in Table 2. Severn
and Winisk continue to be the chief sources of returns, together accounting for more
than half of all returns received Total numbers of returns for all other band areas
are very modest.
Means of death for these 171 birds are summarized in Table 3* We received
only one band from a duck which had been caught in a muskrat trap during the past year,
a sharp drop in this respect.
States or provinces in which the birds were banded are summarized in Table
Band return reports for mallard and Canada goose have been examined for
possible relations between place of banding and place of recovery, and results are
shown in Table 5. The information so obtained does not indicate anything definite
for the mallard.
TABLE II - Places of Returns, by Species
Little Gd. Rap.
Sioux Lookout- Arm.
68 41 23 13
TABLE III - Means of Death of Banded Waterfowl
Shot, Apr. -May
Shot, June- Aug.
Shot, Sept. -Nov.
Not known or oth.
TABLE V - Site of
Banding and Recovery of Waterfowl
S. L. -Armstrong
(b) - Canada Goose
Site of Banding
TABLE IV - Places of Banding, by Species
N. W. Territories
63 41 23 13 13
There may be some connection between the banding site (usually the wintering
grounds) and recovery site of the Canada goose, as indicated by these data. Half or
more of the recoveries from Missouri - and Ontario - banded honkers have come from
inland areas (most of these would be from birds stopping during migration), while
fewer than a quarter of the returns relating to Illinois - and Wisconsin - banded
birds originate from interior points.
Numbers of goose returns for Severn and Winisk are 21 and 26 respectively.
The Severn total may include a higher proportion of geese which winter in Missouri
than the Winisk total.
Data for blue and lesser snow geese have also been examined. The ratio of
banded blues: snows is reversed from 8:10 at Severn to 5:2 at Winisk. All but two
of these 25 birds were banded by F. G. Cooch on Southampton Island, in 1952 and 1953°
It is possible that a different ratio between the two species exists in the two
places. It is also possible that the Severn flight consists to a greater extent of
Southampton Id. birds than does the Winisk flight. I am looking forward to the
publication of Mr. Cooch* s research on these species.
MID-WINTER WATERFOWL INVENTORY, 1954
H. G. Lunsden
The mid-winter waterfowl inventory was carried out in the Rideau District
by Mr. Peck and Mr. Lumsden on the morning of January 7th, and that in the Tweed
District on the afternoon of the same day by Mr. Lumsden. The counts were done from
a Piper Cruiser at an altitude of about 150 feet following the same routes as in the
three previous years. Temperature in the morning was about 10°F rising to about 20°F
in the early afternoon; visibility was very good with light cloud in the morning at
2000 feet, dissipating in the afternoon. Winds were westerly at about 15 m.p.h.
There was less ice in the St. Lawrence and Lake Ontario this year than even
1953* which was an exceptionally open winter. On the south shores of Prince Edward
County, Amherst and Wolfe Islands, even the small bays were unfrozen although the semi
land-locked waters such as Bayfield Bay on Wolfe Island were closed.
The Bay of Quinte was frozen as far as the Glenora ferry, however, there
were large open patches in Huykes Bay, Pleasant Bay and Weller Bay.
The following table gives the figures for 1954 compared with those of 1951
to 1953* They concern the St. Lawrence from the eastern end of Howe Island to the
8,150 10,459 4,562 6,645
The 1951 figures omit that part of the river lying between Croil Island and
the Quebec border, a distance of about 26 miles.
The following table gives the figures for Lake Ontario from Howe Island
to Presquile Bay for 1954 and the three previous years.
970 1,783 1,920 2,838
Ice conditions are possibly the most important factor governing the
numbers and distribution of ducks in winter in Ontario.
Surface feeding ducks such as the Black Duck require shallow open water for
foraging in winter. Hard weather seals up such places and they have to leave for
the south. Of the four years under consideration, 1952 was the one with the most ice,
and 1954 the one with the least. It will be seen that Black Ducks were least abundant
in 1952 and present in largest numbers in 1954* In a sense Black Duck numbers in the
St. Lawrence-Lake Ontario area could be used as an index to ice conditions.
The two most common diving ducks wintering in this area are the Golden-eye
and Old Squaw. Golden-eyes are powerful under water swimmers, but do not normally
forage as deep as the Old Squaws. They do not feed on the same organisms, but take
more fish. They are in fact closely related to the Mergansers.
Ice conditions affect these two species in a different way to Black Duck.
In the St. Lawrence under heavy icing conditions swift water areas remain open, but
the quieter reaches of the right feeding depth for Golden-eye close up. This species
is therefore forced to concentrate on the open areas and few are missed on an aerial
survey. The high numbers seen in 1952 probably do not indicate an increase for that
year, and in the same way the lower counts for 1953 and 1954 may not indicate a de-
crease in the total number of this species. From the breeding ground surveys in eastern
North America there are indications that the Golden-eye may actually have increased in
the past 2 years. In the dead waters of Lake Ontario, the shallowest areas freeze
first. In a light ice year Golden-eye may be found scattered along all coasts. In
years with extensive ice they tend to concentrate in holes lying over shoal water and
on certain parts of the shoreline. Golden-eye have increased steadily in Lake Ontario
since 1951, the causes of this are at present obscure.
Old Squaw are not found wintering in this part of Ontario in waters over-
lying Pre-Cambrian rocks. They are thus absent from the eastern end of Lake Ontario
and the St. Lawrence. They are found in greatest numbers off the south shore of
Prince Edward County in waters overlying limestone rocks. Their numbers seem to be
correlated with ice conditions, only unlike the Black Duck they are most abundant in
heavy ice years and least abundant in mild winters.
EXPERIMENT IN SCARING STARLINGS BY SOUND AT BUFFALO, N. Y.
A. H. Berst
Experiment carried out by Street Division of the City
of Buffalo, under the authority of Mr. Frank Stahl,
Director of Streets.
Mr. Vic Barthouski of the above Division was in charge
of the operation.
For over 20 years the tall shade trees in a residential area in the City
of Buffalo in the vicinity of the intersection of Starin and Depew Streets have been
preferred roosing sites by starlings. Large numbers of purple martins, grackles and
robins have also used the same area nightly during the summer months for many years.
The primary object of the experiment was to drive the starlings out of
Two sound trucks were employed. Each truck contained a sound amplifying
system with two loud speakers, the direction of each of which was controllable. A
#wax record disk contained a series of shotgun bursts and starling distress calls
was played through the ## amplifying systems on the trucks to provide the required
#The technique used in making the original recording on the wax record was
very roughly as follows: The distress call of a single starling was made on a tape
recorder. (A wounded starling will often give the characteristic distress call. Also,
if a starling is held by the tip of a wing or by a foot, it will usually give the call)
This call was re-recorded on another tape and roughly superimposed a number of times,
so that when the tape was played back it sounded like a large number of starlings in
distress. Two shotgun bursts were recorded on the tape, just ahead of the distress
calls. By transcription, a wax record disk was then filled with a series of the shot-
gun blasts and distress calls.
##The amplifier should be powered with at least 35 to 50 watts to provide
sufficient volume. This is very important .
Observations of the Buffalo Experiment :
The experiment started in the evening of August 2nd and continued thereafter
for 4 successive evenings. My observations were made on August 2nd and August 5th.
August 2nd Observations:
At 8:00 p.m., I stood on the corner of Starin and Depew Streets and observed
thousands of starlings, purple martins, grackles and a few hundred robins descending
from the skies from all directions, diving into the tall shade trees which line the
streets. By 8:15 p.m., the noise of the birds was very loud.
At 8:15 p.m., the two sound trucks started into operation. Each truck had
a pre-detemiined route, laid out like a figure 8, with the centre part of the 8 at
the corner of Starin and Depew Streets, which was the approximate centre of the
roosting area. The trucks proceeded very slowly, with loudspeakers blasting, along
their routes, pausing under trees which appeared to contain the largest concentrations
of birds. Operators on the trucks were continually adjusting the direction of the
loudspeakers so that the full effect of the sound would reach the desired locations.
Effects of the sound on the birds were immediately obvious. From my observation point,
I could see thousands of starlings, purple martins and grackles hurriedly leaving the
trees as the sound trucks approached. As the experiment continued, the sky was full
of flocks of birds, flying in every direction, and apparently very confused. As soon
as the sound truck had passed an area, large numbers of birds would re-alight on the
trees, only to be scared away again within a few minutes when the sound truck re-
appeared. However, when the trucks quit for the night, about 10:15 p.m., there were
still thousands of birds in the trees.
August 5th Observations :
I arrived at the corner of Starin and Depew Streets at 8 p.m. Very few
birds of any species were in the trees, which on Monday, August 2nd, had contained
many thousands of roosting birds. A few small flocks of starlings, martins and
grackles alighted in the trees between 8 and 8:15 p.m. The sound trucks started on
their routes at 8:15 p.m. and birds could be seen leaving the trees. However, they
could be estimated in tens and hundreds, whereas on August 2nd they were estimated by
the thousands. The sound trucks now searched for individual trees which contained
birds, and as the evening progressed it became increasingly difficult to find trees
with roosting birds, since they were becoming scarce.
I talked with several residents of the area, who appeared extremely well
pleased with the results of the experiment and drew my attention to the lack of starling
droppings on the streets and the quietness which prevailed. Officials responsible for
the experiment were also very pleased and appeared surprised to see such a reduction
in numbers of purple martins and grackles as well as starlings. They intended to carry
out the "sounding" for one more night (August 6).
It Is believed that a large number of young birds, born this summer in the
country and just now learning to fly, will follow their parents to the roosting area
in the near future. It will probably be necessary to scare these birds out of the
roost at weekly intervals.
It will be necessary to wait for a week or more to see if the flocks of
birds return to the roosting area before the value of the experiment can be estimated.
However, the results up to August 6th were very promising.
DUCK BANDING AT TORONTO ISLANDS - 1954.
W. J. Douglas Stephen
During the period of the duck trapping operation on Toronto Islands a total
number of two hundred and three ducks were caught. Of this number one hundred and
fifty-eight were banded. Twenty-five of these birds were caught again. Of the total
eleven ducks were lost to predators. Nine ducklings were caught in the bait traps
and released as too small to band, and four were caught with hand nets and released
as too small to band. Of those lost to predators (presumably raccoons) four had been
banded previously in the summer's operation. As the bands belonged in the same series,
they were re-used because of the shortage of bands.
Ducks banded 158
Direct recoveries 25
Lost to predators 11
Released from bait traps (too small) 9
Released from hand traps (too small) 4
Of the total number of birds caught fifty-nine were Black Ducks and one
hundred and forty-four were Mallards. Of the Black Ducks caught four were juveniles?
of these four only three were banded. Among the Black Ducks banded and those lost
to predators (a total of fifty) there were thirty-three adult males, fourteen adult
females and three juveniles.
Of the Mallards banded and those lost to predators, twenty-two were adult
males, forty-one were adult females and forty-nine were juveniles.
I estimate that there were thirty-six broods of ducks at the Toronto
Islands. The total duck population is estimated at from two hundred to two hundred
and twenty-five adults plus one hundred and seventy-five to two hundred juveniles.
This is a sum total of from three hundred and seventy-five to four hundred and twenty-
five ducks. With the blacks the size of broods ranges from one to eight ducklings
with an average of four to five. In the mallards, the brood size ranges from one to
ten ducklings with the average six to seven.
The broods are located on the inner lagoons and spread evenly along them,
when there are sufficient nesting spots, about every two hundred to three hundred
yards. However, in the residential areas east of Chippewa Avenue, on the Regatta
course and the bay front or northern shores of the Islands a lesser density is the case,
The use of a three foot hoop net with twenty foot wings from the sides and
a sixty foot centre lead proved highly effective to trap juveniles and flightless
adults. The trap was set up in a narrow cut leading into a lagoon. The cut was
shallow about three to three and a half feet deep. The hoops and wings were partly
supported by wooden (1 M x 1" x 6») stakes and tied at the rear to a bridge. The wings
were then spread across the water and the ducks driven into the hoop net. The largest
percentage of ducks were caught in this manner.
The bait for the bait-type traps was a whole corn-whole barley mixture
(about 50-50). Five bags of corn and four bags of barley were required to operate
six traps for four weeks. The ducks seem to prefer the whole corn to the barley, but
the barley provides a sight attraction and provides fodder for starlings, grackles
and red-wing blackbirds which might otherwise eat corn.
The most effective trapping period is estimated to be from approximately
June 10 to July 15. A shorter trapping period near the latter part of this time might
be just as effective if more personnel and equipment were used. However, in an area
as limited as this it is doubtful if more than eight to ten bait-type traps could be
operated effectively. They would have to be moved from time to time anyway so that
they would be as efficient as sixteen traps or more.
The nestlings are able to keep on a band as soon as the covert feathers
start to appear on the wing. Sometimes they can be banded before that in a slow-
feathering bird, so the appearance of covert feathers leaves a margin of error. The
use of plastic tags, or expandable bands would be of great use for easier marking,
easy identification and the possibility of a shorter banding period.
A larger hoop net would also enable a larger number of areas to be worked.
Not only the larger capacity but the greater length of the wings would enable wider
areas to be driven for ducks.
WATERFOWL OBSERVATIONS IN THE PERRAULT FALLS
AREA, SIOUX LOOKOUT DISTRICT, 1953 - 1954.
A. T. Cringan
Much field work was done by the author and others in the Ferrault Falls area
during 1953. All waterfowl observations made between Vermilion Bay and Wenasaga Lake
from Ord Lake west to Aerobus Lake, during such field work, are included in this
report. The following are the individual field trips which were made into the area
during 1953 » and the persons participating:
Spring ; May 6th - 8th : self, D. Van Vliet
May 9th - 12th : D. Van Vliet
May 13th - 16th : self, J. H. Cringan, D. Van Vliet
May 20th : self, D. Van Vliet
May 21st - 26th : D. Van Vliet
Summer ; June 15th - 19th
July 20th - 24th
Aug. 11th - 15th
Fall ; Oct. 1st - 2nd
Oct. 8th - 10th
Oct. 15th - 16th
Oct. 19th - 20th
Nov. 26th - 28th
self, D. Van Vliet
self, D. Van Vliet
self, D. Van Vliet
self, J. A. Macfie
Complete records of observations were kept for only 7 days in May.
Snow Goose and Blue Goose
Spring ; The 1953 flight of snow and blue geese over Cedar Lake was the
largest that Dr. R. Blais had seen there between 1947 and 1953. He saw a total of
about 1000 blue and snow geese between May 4th and 9th, and an additional 75 blue
geese on May 15th.
Conservation Officer N. Dahl saw 200 blue and snow geese at Perrault Falls
on May 5th.
The author and D. Van Vliet saw about 80 geese on May 6th., and about 1000
on May 7th., at Perrault Falls. The flocks consisted of blue and snows in about equal
proportions, the flocks flying about N. 30 E. Another flock of 25 blue geese was seen
on May 9th.
Spring ; Mallards were already present in the area when field work commenced
on May 6th. Between 4 and 13 mallards were seen daily on 6/7 days in May.
Summer ; During June, from 2-13 mallards were seen daily on 4/4 days in
the field. It was only seen twice during July, when broods accompanied by adult females
were seen on July 21st and 22nd. Last male in breeding plumage was seen on June 18th.
- 7 eggs
- 7 yg.
Fall ; 4/28 ducks in hunters' bags inspected during October were mallards.
May 15th., 1953 - nest and 7 eggs, Cedar Lake.
July 21st., 1953 - female and brood of 6 Class 111 young, Cedar Lake.
July 22nd., 1953 - female and brood of 1 Class 111 young, Ord Creek.
Average brood size: 3.5 young.
Observed Mallard Sex Ratio, by Months
Spring : Two pairs were seen on Wabaskang Lake between May 8th and 13th.
One male and 2 females were seen at the Upper Falls, Wabigoon River, on May 20th.
Summer : Two pairs were seen on Wabaskang Lake on June 17th., and one pair
there on June 18th.
Fall : 2/28 ducks in hunters' bags checked during October were pintails.
Spring : A pair of ring-necked ducks was seen on Wabaskang Lake between May
8th and 12th., and two pairs were seen at the same place on May 13th. A pair and a
drake were seen on the Wabigoon River near Upper Falls on May 20th.
Summer : The ring-necked duck appeared to be fairly common during June, as
1-15 were noted daily on 4/4 days afield. On June 16th., 1 pair, 1 drake, and one
individual of undetermined sex were seen along Ord Creek. Five pairs and 5 drakes
were seen on Keynote Lake on June 17th., 1 pair, two males and two females on
Wabaskang on the 18th, and 1 female on Wabaskang on the 19th.
Fall : 3/28 ducks in hunters' bags checked during October were ring-necked
Greater Scaup Duck
Spring : A pair of greater scaups was seen in Lac Seul, at Goldpines, on
Lesser Scaup Duck
Spring: A flock of fifty or so scaups, apparently of this species was seen
on Wabaskang Lake twice between May 8th and 13th.
Spring ; From 1-18 golden-eyes were noted daily on 7/7 days afield in
May. The Yast recognizable adult male in breeding plumage was seen on May 23rd.
Summer : During June, 8-19 adult golden-eyes were noted daily on 4/4
days in the field. Broods were seen as early as June 16th. Also recorded on 2 days
in July and 2 days in August.
Fall : 6/28 ducks in hunters' bags checked during October were golden-eyes.
Total Number of
Total Number of
Average Brood Size
Fall : 2/28 ducks in hunters 1 bags inspected during October were surf scoters.
Spring : A group of 3 drake hooded mergansers was seen on Ord Lake on May 15th.
Summer : Two hooded mergansers of undetermined sex were seen on Ord Creek on
June 16th., and a female was seen on Wabaskang Lake on June 17th.
Fall : 1/28 ducks inspected in hunters » bags during October was a hooded
Spring: From 1 to 6 common mergansers were noted daily on 5/7 days in May.
Summer : Between 2 and 12 birds of this species were noted daily on 4/4
days in June. It was also noted once in July and once in August. The last male in
recognizable breeding plumage was seen on June 18th.
Fall ; 10/28 ducks in hunters 1 bags checked during October were common
June 17th, 1953 - brood of 3 Class I young, Wabaskang Lake.
July 24th., 1953 - brood of 14 Class II young, Cliff Lake. #
Aug. 15th., 1953 - brood of 32 Class III young, Cedar Lake. #
# - Probably multiple broods.
Observed Common Merganser Sex Ratio by Months
Relative Abundance of Waterfowl Seen in the Perrault Falls Area During
June, July and August, 1953.
Species Number of Per Cent of
________ Adults Seen All Ducks Seen
1. Common Golden-eye 79 44 %
2. Mallard 42 23 %
3. Ring-necked Duck 26 14 %
4. Common Merganser 24 13 %
5. Bald pate 6 3 %
6. Hooded Merganser 3 2 %
TOTAL 180 99 %
Relative Abundance of Waterfowl Broods and Ducklings Seen in the Perrault Falls
Area During June, July and August, 1953.
1. Common Merganser
2. Common Golden-eye
3 . Mallard
# - One or two multiple broods are included for common merganser.
1954 Spring and Early Summer Waterfowl Observations in the Perrault Falls Area .
I made two short field trips into the Perrault Falls area in the spring of
1954, preparatory to having a field party in that area during parts of July and
August. The first trip was from May 25th - 28th, during which all travel was by
truck and foot, and the second trip, June 8th - 12th. I was accompanied by my wife
during the second trip, and in addition to truck and foot travel, we travelled along
Ord Creek by canoe and outboard motor on June 10th. The following is a summary of
waterfowl observations made during these two trips.
A total of 18 mallards, consisting of 4 pairs, 5 males, 1 female, and 4
birds of undetermined sex was seen during these two trips. The species was seen on
five different days. The maximum daily total was recorded on June 10th, when 1 pair,
4 males and 4 birds of undetermined sex were seen along Ord Creek.
A pair of baldpates was seen at Florence Creek on May 26th., and again in
the same place on June 10th.
A pintail drake was seen on Ord Creek on June 10th.
A pair of ring-necked ducks was seen on Ord Creek on June 10th.
Some 49 golden-eyes were observed altogether - 12 pairs, 1 male, 4 females,
and 20 adults of undetermined sex. On May 26th., 6 pairs and 1 male were seen, and
on June 10th. we saw 20 golden-eyes, including 3 females. The species was recorded
on five different days. No recognizable adult males were seen after May 27th.
A flock of 25 surf scoters was seen on Farewell Bay, Lac Seul, on May 26th.
They were undoubtedly then still in migration, and were the only surf scoters I saw
One pair of hooded mergansers was seen in Trail Lake on May 25th.
Common mergansers were noted on seven different days, and a total of 21 was
seen. They consisted of 2 pairs, 11 males, 2 females, and 2 birds of undetermined
sex. A group of 5 adult males in breeding plumage was seen on June 10th.
This species was only seen on May 26th., when one pair was seen on Goose
Lake, and a second pair at Perrault Falls. These were the last red-breasted
mergansers I saw this spring.
A BIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF ENGINEER'S LAKE, KENORA DISTRICT . M
P. F. Chidley
Purpose of Survey t
The purpose of this survey was to obtain biological data on the condition
and composition of the fish population of Engineer's Lake with a view to suggesting
future management procedures.
In 1952, some work was done in an effort to ascertain the success of two
plantings of hatchery reared Speckled Trout fingerlings.
Procedure of Survey ;
The survey was conducted from October 15 to October 24, 1947, and supervised
by Mr. J. W. Rousom, formerly District Biologist of the Kenora Forest District.
Fish samples were collected by means of gill nets. Below are listed the net
sets made and the sizes of mesh used:
Set # 1 - 100 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh
Set # 2 - 300 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh
Set # 3 - 100 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh
Set § 4 - 180 yds. -
30 yds. of 1 3/4" mesh
30 yds. of 1 1/2" mesh
30 yds. of 3 n mesh
30 yds. of 3 1/2" mesh
30 yds. of 4 " mesh
30 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh
Set # 5 - Ditto Set # 4
Set # 6 - 300 yds. of 4 1/4" mesh.
Each fish captured was measured for total, fork, and standard lengths to
the nearest eighth of an inch and weighed to the nearest half ounce. Sex was deter-
mined for all fish taken and the stomach content of the carnivorous species analysed.
A scale sample was taken for subsequent age determination.
Collections of small fish were made by means of a thirty-foot minnow seine.
Water transparency was recorded by employing a Secchi disc in the conventional manner.
k A map accompanied this report.
In the fall of 1952, from September 25 to September 30, sets numbered 7, 8,
9» and 10 were made. The size of mesh used was 2 3/4" •
The entire shoreline of the lake was observed from a slow-moving boat in an
effort to perceive any sign of speckled trout redds.
Physical Properties of Engineer's Lake ;
Engineer's Lake is situated in the township of Forgie, eighteen miles west
of the town of Keewatin, immediately north of the Trans-Canada Highway. The lake
has one small inlet which however, is dry during the summer months. There is no
definite outlet although there may be some seepage drainage from the bay in the north-
eastern extremity of the lake.
Prior to the construction of the Trans-Canada Highway, two separate bodies
of water existed where there is one to-day. Construction crews blasted out the
isthmus separating the two small lakes. The smaller portion of the lake contains
brown water while that of the larger is quite clear. The entire lake basin is approxi-
mately one mile in length by one quarter of a mile in width. The surrounding hills
do not exceed fifty feet in height. The east shore of the smaller basin is a sand
beach. The shore of the larger is chiefly made up of rock rubble ranging from coarse
gravel to boulders. One reedy bay exists in the southwest corner of the larger
section of the lake.
Secchi disc visibility in the larger basin was nineteen feet, in the smaller
ten feet. Both readings were taken during July of 1948 in bright sunlight.
Biological Properties of Engineer's Lake ;
The sample of fish taken during the survey appears to be satisfactory with
respect to relative abundance of species.
Table I lists the fish taken, the total number and total weight of each
species, and the percentages of the overall totals which they form. The number and
kind of fish caught per net set are given in Table II. In Table III age in years is
related to average weight in ounces and average fork length in inches. (Age is given
as the number of annuli present on the scale.) Stomach analysis is presented in
Table IV. Hatchery plantings are listed in Table V.
Engineer's Lake harbours a good population of Lake Trout and Northern Pike.
Both species exhibit good growth rates and attain good weight. One Pike taken
weighed fourteen pounds, twelve and one half ounces. Unfortunately all scales removed
for age determination proved to be regenerative.
The Common Sucker does not appear too abundant and is probably the most
important forage fish. No Yellow Perch were taken in the survey nets, however, some
were recovered from the stomachs of both Pike and Trout.
The one Yellow Pickerel captured, a male, exhibited good growth. It is not
believed this species inhabited the lake prior to the first hatchery planting in 1940.
Its numbers are not thought to be large at present.
A total of 108 Black-nosed Minnows ( Notropis h. heterolepis ) and one Yellow
Perch was collected during seine hauls in the shallow water. No Speckled Trout were
captured during the brief survey period in the fall of 1952. There was no evidence
of redds of this species at any point along the shore.
Management Observations ;
Engineers Lake is readily accessible by motor car, however, it is not
visible from the highway during the summer season of heavy foliage. For this reason
not too many people are aware of the existence of the Lake and consequently fishing
pressure is not heavy.
There are three small private cottages on the lake at present.
What is now one lake was originally two. During the construction of the
Trans-Canada Highway in 1933 , working crews blasted out the present channel which
joins the two basins. It is rumoured that dynamite was also used for the purpose of
procuring fish, a practice employed in most of the lakes which fringe the highway
Speckled Trout have been planted twice in Engineer's Lake but the success of
this endeavour has yet to be proven. The writer received a report that one had been
caught in the summer of 1952 which prompted the unsuccessful investigation the
subsequent fall. As is usual, the person who caught the reported specimen did not
present it to a Department officer for positive identification.
On the findings of this survey the following recommendations are made:
1. That Engineer's Lake be managed to maintain its fishery for Lake Trout
and Northern Pike.
2. That the further plantings of hatchery-reared Yellow Pickerel be dis-
3. That no Smallmouth Bass be planted in Engineer's Lake.
4. That except when surplus hatchery stock is available, the further plant-
ing of Lake Trout fingerlings be discontinued since the adult stock
appears quite sufficient for the future propagation of this species.
5. That Speckled Trout fingerlings be planted again in the larger portion
of the lake in an effort to establish this species.
TABLE # 1 - Summary of Catch
Percent of Total
TABLE III. Catch by Net Set
TABLE § III - Growth Rate - Age in Yrs. vs. Fork Length (ins.) and Weight (ozs.)
Table 3a - Northern Pike
Age Length Weight Number
I 17.0 20.5 1
III 21.5 42.5 1
IV 24.3 57.5 1
V 25.9 78.2 7
VI 28.7 114.7 2
VII 34.0 171.5 1
3b - Lake
Table 3c - Common Sucker
Table 3d - Yellow Pickerel
TABLE # IV - Stomach Analysis
Table 4a - Lake Trout
Unidentifiable Fish Remains
Aquatic Insect Larvae
Table 4b - Northern Pike
Unidentifiable Fish Remains
TABLE V -
CREEL CENSUS REPORT - 1953 SAULT STE. MARIE DISTRICT *
Kenneth H. Loftus
The creel census report for the Sault Ste. Marie District is based, as in
previous years, on the census cards which were distributed and subsequently collected
at the two main travel permit gates, one being on the Chapleau Highway, the other on
the White River road. Being thus located, the census provides data on the quality of
fishing over an area approximately one-fifth of the district. Although the area
covered is rather small, there is little doubt that the proportion of the total
district angling pressure is somewhat larger than one-fifth.
A total of 2,990 anglers reported their catches during the 1953 angling
season. Fifty-two (52) percent of this total number angled for great northern pike,
and by far the largest number of these enthusiasts spent at least some time on the
now famous Rocky Island Lake. Speckled trout anglers numbered one out of every four,
or twenty-five (25) percent of the angling population and their efforts were rather
more dispersed than were those of the pike anglers. Lake trout claimed the attention
of 16.7 percent of the anglers passing through the gates and, while the distribution
of this species necessitates more concentration of effort than is the case with
speckled trout, still there was no concentration of effort such as occurred at Rocky
Island Lake. Rainbow trout, pickerel and sraallmouth bass anglers altogether
constituted eight (8) percent of the total number of anglers present, this total being
made up of three, three and two percent of the anglers for these three species respec-
The total numbers of fish caught by these anglers and the numbers of hours
spent in pursuit of their special pastime are recorded in the appended table. It is
of interest to note that pike anglers' efforts were well rewarded at the rate of
almost one fish per hour of fishing and that the average angler caught slightly over
thirteen pike which weighed 52 pounds during his trip. Many of these pike, being of
rather small size, were returned to the water. Less than one (1) percent of the pike
anglers were completely unsuccessful and had to report no fish.
The average speckled trout angler required 1.8 hours for each of his fish.
His efforts, slightly more persevering than those of the pike angler, resulted in an
average catch of 7.1 trout which, in aggregate, weighed about 3«5 pounds. Six (6)
percent of the speckled trout anglers reported no luck.
Lake trout anglers, traditionally more patient, waited three and a half
hours for each trout. In spite of the fact that their sport and patience yielded an
average of only two and a half trout each, still their creel, at almost five pounds,
outweighed that of the speckled trout angler.
Pickerel anglers, though few in number, were comparatively well reimbursed
for their efforts. These tasty yellow pike-perch were landed at the rate of two every
three hours and the average catch per angler numbered 5.7 and weighed a little better
than fourteen (14) pounds in the creel.
The fortunes of those who angled for smallmouth bass, and those whose
preference was for rainbow trout, were remarkably similar. In each case two and a
half hours were required to bring a fish to the creel and the anglers averaged just
under two fish apiece. The average creel of rainbows, which ran larger than the bass,
weighed 3.6 pounds, as compared to less than two (2) pounds of bass.
In comparing the 1953 creel census data with that of 1952 the outstanding
point of contrast is the increased number of pike anglers which appears to have been
recruited from among the ranks of the lake trout anglers. The numbers of anglers for
other species, and their success is, in the main, much similar in the two years.
The value of the creel census, which has now been in operation for three
complete seasons, is becoming more evident. We hope to increase the coverage of the
district, as time goes on, through the cooperative efforts of Conservation Officers,
Chief Rangers and tourist operators.
TABLE I - Summary of Sault Ste. Marie District Creel Census for 195 3.
Total No. of Anglers
Total No. of Rod Hours
Total Fish Caught
No. of Fish Per Hour
No. of Fish Per Angler
Hours per Fish
Average Weight Per Fish
Average Weight Per
% of Unsuccessful
x Ed. Note: Commenting on this report as a guide to the value of creel census
activity Dr. W. J. K. Harkness made the following remarks:
"I wish to say how much I appreciate the work involved in organizing this
information and to express my opinion of the high value inherent in it.
I should like to see this established as a recognized practice throughout
the Province, as I believe it accomplishes at least three purposes, all of which are
of significant importance:-
- It makes the angler aware of the interest of the Department on checking
his activity and in his responsibility for providing information necessary for
- It gives a measure of production or yield of the game fish from our waters;
and the census from year to year provides an indirect indication of the stocks, if not
in actual numbers, certainly in trends, and thus is the entering wedge for more de-
tailed inventory of the game fish stocks."
ADDITIONAL AGE AND GROWTH RATES OF ONTARIO
FISH — LAKE WHITEFISH ( Coregonus clupeaformls )
0. E. Devltt
The Lake Whltefish is the most important of all Ontario freshwater food
fishes producing annually large commercial incomes and to some extent providing
winter sport fishing from angling through the ice.
Veil distributed throughout the province this species exhibits a variability
of growth rates controlled to a large extent by the temperatures of the body of water
concerned. Scale reading was employed in assessing the ages of the following fish.
Georgian Bay, Parry Sound District
Collector — F
Date — August
• A. Walden
Lake Simcoe. Lake
Collector — H. :
Date — Oct. -Nov
Mazinaw Lake. Tweed District
Collector ~ H.
Date ~ April, ',
Collector — K
Date — March,
. K. Irizawa
Lake, Swastika District
Collector — C. A. Elsey
Date ~ June, 1951.
Whitefish Lake. Port Arthur District
Collector — G. C.
Date — June, 1953
Port Arthur District
Collector — G.
Date — August,
Sioux Lookout District
Collector — G. Clifford
Date — October, 1951
Lake Mlnnitaki. Sioux Lookout District
Date — June
Date — Novei;
Crov Lake. Kenora District
Collector ~ J. M. Fraser
Date — July, 1953
(ozs.) Weight Range
TILL XLGJilGARE - "FOR THE MOOSEHUNTER."
(A further abstract from the booklet
by S. Liljefors and L. Liljefors,
Stockholm, Sweden, 1952. Translated
by Ingrid Munck)
(Submitted by C. H. D. Clarke)
Regulations of the Moose Hunt (Sweden)
#1 - All hunting must be carried out in a humane way, so as not to cause
unnecessary sufferings to the game.
The intention of this rule is to emphasize the responsibility of the hunter
in respect to the game, and to make him take all precautions to protect the game from
sufferings. This rule exceeds the limitations of the law concerning the prevention
of cruelty to animals, in so far as it does not excuse those who cause suffering to
the game without any intention to do so. It is true that the risk of wounding the
game can never be completely eliminated. But it is regarded as a violence of the
Hunting Regulations if the wounds result from careless shooting, as for instance by
taking chances and shooting from a long distance, or from the use of dangerous guns
and ammunition, or if the ability of the hunter is impaired due to alcohol. Failure
in attempting to track down the wounded animal immediately, adds to its unnecessary
It is unlawful to hunt moose at night. The second paragraph of the Hunting
Regulations sets the time for legal hunting from one hour before sunrise to one hour
after sunset. This rule does not apply to the tracking down of a moose which has
been wounded during the period mentioned above.
Hunting by artificial light is illegal, and it is not permitted to hunt from
motordriven vehicle, like a car, tractor, motorcycle and the like; the use of any such
vehicle with the purpose of attracting the attention of the game is likewise illegal.
Thus it is not permitted to drive a tractor and let the hunter off at a favourable
spot near the game. Nor is it allowed to shoot from any engine driven vessel,
(including boats provided with outboard motors), or from a vessel which is being
tugged, #S of The Hunting Act. This rule does not include the hunting of seal, however.
It is not permitted to chase the game away from an area belonging to some
other party. This includes any attempts to keep the game within one f s own property
by spreading carbide, lysol and other strong smelling chemicals along the boundaries
of it. The odour may invade the adjoining grounds, resulting in the game leaving
these areas. It is also prohibited to lure the game away from the adjoining areas by
baiting or by calling the moose, #19 of The Hunting Act.
In order that the moose population should not be reduced below a certain
level, restrictions in regard to the hunting of this game must be obeyed. This end
is reached by various ways, for instance by making the ordinary season on moose very
short. Restricting the moose hunt to a few hectic days, however, entails many diffi-
culties. Therefore, in the case of vast hunting areas, the landlord of such a range
may have the ordinary season changed to a longer extraordinary one. This is the so-
called license-hunting season, during which a legal number of moose is killed in
accordance with the highest number of moose to be killed in that year in that particu-
lar area, so that other persons will not kill any significant number of animals here.
An area of 1000 hectares of well tilled farmland has been set as the minimum for
obtaining such a license in the southern parts of the country, which equals an area
of 2000 hectares in the northern parts. In Uppsala county where the moose population
is very large, the requirements are much lower in respect to the area.
Application for licensed hunting is filed by the private landowners in
counties where their properties are located. In such cases where the area is cut in
two by a boundary line between two counties, the applications are filed with the county
in which the larger part of the property is located. Applications are filed with the
Government Board of Crown Lands and Forests in the case of land belonging to the Crown.
Such applications must be in the hands of the authorities not later than by the l'irst
of August in those parts of the country where the ordinary season starts in September,
and by the first of September in other localities where the season opens in October.
A license for hunting moose is valid for a certain area only, which must
therefore be stated in detail in the application. The names of the concessions and
the registration number of the particular areas must be indicated too. As a rule a
map (issued by the Military Command) is required for this purpose, and the boundaries
of the area should be indicated on it. The size of the area is given in hectares,
(1 hectare equals 2.47 acres). It must be stated in the application for how long a
time the license is requested. The maximum time is one month, and the extraordinary
season is to begin at the same time as the ordinary one, in that particular area.
The number of moose to be killed must be stated too. Finally a reliable estimate of
the growth of the moose population should be cited in the application.
The purpose of licensed hunting is to reduce the moose population where it
is too numerous, so that a decrease in the damage caused by this game results. A
statement from The Committee Dealing with Damage Caused by Moose, or from some other
authorities concerned with the extent of the damage must be enclosed with the
applications, and it must be stated whether the particular area is covered by the
law. If it is, the season may be prolonged for more than one month, and permission
to hunt yearlings may be granted, if a wish to that effect is expressed in the
application. The approximate number of yearlings must be stated.
The importance of reading the license carefully must be emphasized, as it
is likely to contain certain conditions as to the ratio of bulls, cows and yearlings
to be killed, or it may list areas to be closed to the hunt.
Such a license obliges the holder to kill only as many moose as it permits.
Cases have occurred where the total number of moose have been killed during the first
day of the season, which means that this particular season is over.
It should be noticed that the license permits the holder to kill a certain
number of moose, i.e. to reduce the population with such a number; moose that are
found to have died from natural causes are not to be included in this number. Only
when such moose are found during the ordinary season are they to be regarded as the
legal property of the license holder; at all other times they are the property of the
Crown. A moose which is wounded within the licensed area, and which dies within 100
meters from its boundaries belongs to the holder of the hunting license. The moose
belongs to the Crown if it dies outside this 100 meters area; however, if it is killed
during the ordinary open season it is the property of the landowner of the surrounding
area, or the property of the license holder of the particular area. Also in this
case the moose is to be included in the total number killed. Besides the law concern-
ing the extraordinary season on moose there are some other rules, the purpose of which
is to reduce the damage caused by this game. Areas in which the hardwood industry
is of major importance can be registered as such with the county authorities upon
recommendation of The Moose Damage Committee; this means in practice that the holder
of the hunting license for that particular area may hunt moose all year round.
However, he is only permitted to keep such animals which are killed during the ordinary
season. All others belong to the Crown.
In such areas where damage caused by moose necessitates hunting of this game
at other times of the year than during the extraordinary season, the county authori-
ties or the Government Board of Crown Lands and Forests may legalize such hunting.
The exact time for the hunt to take place and the maximum number of moose (including
yearlings) to be killed is stated in such a permission. This type of permission is
granted in order to kill only such animals which cause damage to the crops. The hunt
must take place in or close to the fields in question, and the killed animals belong
to the holder of the hunting license.
A similar permission may be obtained to kill such moose that are known to
cause damage to the woods. This permission can be used out of season. Moose killed
in accordance with such a permission belong to the Crown, however.
One rule is common to all three types of special permissions mentioned
here, namely, that if a cow moose killed during the time from April 15th to August
31st is accompanied by a yearling, the latter is to be killed too.
Wounded and Dead Moose
The 100 meters boundary.
The hunter must stay within his own area, and the game he aims at must be
within the same area. However, the animal does not always die the moment it is hit
by a bullet, and the moose is likely to run a considerable distance before collapsing,
even if the bullet is correctly placed. Especially when hunting close to the border
of one's area the moose may happen to die within an area belonging to somebody else.
If the moose collapses within 100 meters from the area belonging to the hunter, the
latter has a right to keep the animal, (#16, The Act of Hunting Rights). In the case
of a killed moose, deer or elk two witnesses must be present when the game is
retrieved, and the landowner or the holder of the hunting license of that particular
area must be informed about the event within 1+8 hours.
This rule about the ownership to game obtained from a strange area is often
misinterpreted, so that it is necessary to explain it in detail. The moose must
receive the fatal wound while still in the area belonging to the hunter. Thus a
hunter loses his right to the moose if he continues to shoot at the animal after it
crosses the border of his area. This is something one must not do from a humanitarian
point of view, although it is not stated clearly in the Act.
The moose is considered as collapsed when it falls to the ground and is
unable to move; yet it need not actually be dead. If the shot which kills the animal
is fired while the moose is in a strange area, the case is nevertheless not regarded
as illegal hunting, and the hunter does not lose his right to the game. The regula-
tion regarding the 100 meter area is to be taken literally; a 100 meter wide strip
(which equals 110 yards) must be imagined as running around the border of the hunting
area. If the moose collapses within this area it belongs to the hunter which killed it
irrespective of the course the moose took to get there. In case somebody else aimed
a shot at the moose, during the time from which the first shot was fired till the
animal collapsed, it is for the first hunter to prove that his bullet killed the moose.
To do this, however, is as a rule a hopeless matter.
An example: Anderson believes to have hit the moose in the lungs at a
point A. The moose crosses the boundary and passes through the 100 meter strip
belonging to his area, thus being lost to him. Jonsson shoots at it, but the animal
moves on and passes, without further shots, Karlsson's area; it finally collapses
without being shot at in Larsson 1 s area, but lies within 100 meters from Andersson's
area. To whom, now, does the animal belong? The moose collapsed at a distance more
than 100 meters from Jonsson 1 s hunting area, which means that Jonsson has no right
to it. It passed through Karlsson's area without being shot at, and finally it
collapsed outside Anderson's hunting area. Karlsson has no claim on the moose.
Larsson did not shoot, but the animal lies in his field and so he claims it, basing
his claim on the act concerning game found in the field, (#18, section 2 of The
Hunting Act). Andersson believes that the shot which was fired within his area killed
the moose, and as the moose lies within his 100 meters strip he claims the animal
as his property, according to #16 of The Hunting Act. If the hunt had taken place
during the extraordinary season, and not as is the case during the ordinary season
in that locality, not Larsson but the Crown would have claimed the animal, (#18, The
Hunting Act). The case may be even more complicated at other times. The rule about
the 100 meters border area constantly causes bad feelings among neighbours, and as
it definitely promotes less careful sportsmanship in the boundary areas it is a matter
of interest to the societies concerned with the protection of wildlife to have this
rule eliminated from the law. There is no reason for maintaining this rule, the more
so as it is the duty of the hunter to report the crossing of a wounded animal into
the adjoining area.
It is the duty of anybody wounding an animal, to track it down and have it
killed, (#1, The Hunting Act).
When the moose is hit by a bullet it must be considered as seriously wounded
until the opposite is proved to be the case. A careful search for the wounded animal
is an obligation and the failure to carry it out is a criminal offense. If a wounded
moose enters a strange area the holder of the hunting license in that particular area
or his representative must be informed immediately, (#16, section 2 of The Hunting
Act). If one finds a badly wounded moose and one considers it necessary to kill it
the case must be reported immediately to the police or to the local representative of
The Government Board of Crown Lands and Forests. A moose killed under such circum-
stances is the property of the Crown.
This term refers to remnants of dead game which are still of some value.
Game already dealt with does not come under this regulation, which states that dead
game is the property of the Crown, except during the open season when it is the
property of the holder of the hunting license. Excepted from this rule is game found
in the 100 meters border area, (#16, The Hunting Act).
The finding of dead game during the closed season should be reported to the
police or to the representative of The Board as soon as possible.